HAWAI‘I, SEPTEMBER 11 – OCTOBER 2, 2012
“Would you like to join us? Come, sit down so we can talk.” (“Talk story” would be more like it.) In Hawai‘i, I heard those sweet words frequently.
Let me confess right away that I suck at learning Hawai‘ian words and place names! I discovered that I am totally dependent on many consonants to help me identify and remember words. When the number is drastically reduced, I’m sunk. There are five vowels (AEIOU, long and short) and eight consonants (HKLMNPWʽ). There are also accented syllables (audible, but invisible). It took me a while to learn how to reproduce diacritical marks on the keyboard. Please correct my errors!
Shuttle bus drivers from the Honolulu airport are terrific, pointing out landmarks, answering questions, suggesting cheap places to eat, teaching the two most important words in Hawaiian: “Aloha” (love, in one interpretation) and “Mahalo” (thank you). One driver spoke of his “chop suey” ancestry. He looked haole (white), could speak standard English and HCE (Hawaiʻian Creole English) and talk about food with Filipino passengers, and had been in the navy. He recommended being in the ocean to clear all evils (especially skin afflictions) and a diner – the Rainbow – in Waikiki.
Waikīkī Beach in the early morning is quiet and peaceful. The whole area is hotels and condominiums, lots of ritzy shopping and restaurants. Wandering in and out of fancy hotels is no problem. During the day it’s increasingly packed with people, all the way through until midnight. The crowd is friendly, with people from South America, lots of Asians, Americans and Europeans. Whites are a minority. There are buskers and local people, perhaps houseless, who hang out under the roofed shelters on the promenade along the beach. These are ample, with big tables, comfortable places. A couple of nights a week, there is a public hula show.
It’s an easy place to spend a lot of money, but it’s also easy to spend very little by shopping and eating in the International Marketplace. There are at least two ABC stores on every block, somewhat overpriced (fine coffee!) but definitely convenient. I stayed at a hostel there for a total of seven nights at the beginning and end of my stay. Not at all bad as a home base, especially given The Bus system on Oʽahu. Travel around almost the entire island for $2.50. A four-day bus pass for $25 allows unlimited trips and transfers – though there is some waiting!
When I took the circle ride, I jumped off the bus at Kahuku on the North Shore. I’d read of the shrimp shacks there, beside the shrimp farms. I had an absolutely delicious meal at Tita’s Grill of garlic shrimp on rice with macaroni salad. I had no idea the latter could taste good, and the juices from the shrimp permeated the rice perfectly. The shrimp itself was truly succulent; now I know from whence the word “Suck”. Oh, my.
I also jumped off the bus at Haleʽiwa. It’s an historic location, with one of the first churches, named for Liliʽuokalani. I took photos of people eating shave ice, with their permission, but I should have tried some myself instead of declaring it scary looking (teeth hurting).
Whether driving, riding or walking, scenery is always changing from dry desert to lush forest, from plains to hills and mountains, from deep green vegetation to bright red soil, from low to high altitude. Just as dramatic is the change in skies from blue to cloudy, dry to spray (I scarcely experienced raindrops), and then to rainbows.
Riding buses is a great way to become acquainted with the neighborhoods and scenery outside, and the passengers inside. Passengers on buses in Hawai`i keep a sharp eye on who is climbing on, doing a quick mental calculation of relative age. If older persons get on, the younger leave their seats and move towards the back of the bus. Foreigners are easily identified, because they don`t catch on. I learned to graciously accept or give up my seat, as appropriate. I too have Aunties (women of a generation older than I)! When a wheelchair rolls on, the driver leaps up and shoos everyone out of the front seats where s/he fastens down the wheelchair. This has a ripple effect of people springing up and moving backwards all the way down the bus, as elders are displaced. The goal seems to be to have the passengers neatly sorted by age. (To escape cold air conditioning, move to the very back seat, which is warm!) Consideration for the elderly is widespread. I once saw two young men help an elderly woman out of a car and up onto a curb with her walker. She was with an equally-old man. The guys then said goodbye and passed through the doors of the building they were going to. At a bus stop only a few minutes later, a man in a business shirt helped an unsteady elderly woman wheel her awkward shopping cart towards a bus. When he moved to the back of the crowd, I approached him, and asked if he knew her. “No,” he said, “It just seemed like the right thing to do.” So I told him I’d just seen another similar incident, and we agreed that the world is a pretty nice place. Aloha.
The first morning out on the pier, I met a man covered in the zebra pigeons he was feeding. He gave me some bread, so pretty soon I was covered, too! He’s retired from the mainland (the continent), and goes out every morning to feed the birds. He also pointed out the monk seal on the beach, protected by yellow tape. It’s an endangered species.
The shop at the Kawahaiaʽo Church and Mission Houses had a great selection of books. It was tended by a woman born in Hawaii, of Chinese descent. She lived in Seattle for a few years, because her husband went to grad school there. There is a great deal of exchange between Hawaii, Washington and Oregon, especially for schooling. She used to go to Vancouver frequently to go to Chinatown, which she loved. It was she who helped me realize that it was quite feasible and inexpensive to mail books to Canada, which eventually cost me a great deal of money and gave me a great deal of pleasure!
It was great fun when I found the lei-making florists on Beretania, close to Nuʻuanu Stream and Chinatown. I saw an elderly lady, cutting thread in lengths. She spoke little English. In the cooler beside her, I could see plastic food containers (of the type salad is sold in) with flowers inside. I asked her if I could look at one, and she took it out and modelled it for me. It sold for $5. In another shop, a woman told me that most of the flowers come from Thailand. She insisted on giving me a lei, which she said was too old to sell. From then on, everyone asked if it were a special day for me; why was I wearing a lei? “Somebody loves you!” It was such a nice gesture by her, which made me feel liked and made me look approachable and friendly to others. Another lei-maker gave the “L” sign with her hand as I took her photo. (Extend little finger and thumb; curl middle three fingers.) It’s used for “Thank you” for letting me into traffic, “All is well,” “Cheers,” etc.
For supper in Kealakekua, I had Hawaiian crab poke with rice. Not too great or healthy-seeming, but filling and inexpensive. The owner dries and smokes fish himself. He was in the Air Force for a time, and had been in Michigan, so knows where Alberta is.
A sign at his place said he accepted EBT, as does the convenience store across the road. EBT – Electronic Benefit Transfer, replacing food stamps. It’s like a debit card. Are many people on them? Yes, lots! Knowing about the EBT allows me to recognize just how empty and run-down, abandoned so many buildings are. Mind you, it’s the off-season. Most tourist businesses are closed: the agricultural cooperative, the art gallery attached to a grill. Across the state, unemployment seems to run 6-10% – but that only includes those still receiving benefits. http://bigislandnow.com/2012/03/29/states-unemployment-rate-lowest-in-3-years/
http://hawaii.gov/dhs/self-sufficiency/benefit/EBT About 155,000 in Hawaii receive SNAP – Service Nutrition Program. http://hawaii.gov/dhs/self-sufficiency/benefit/FNS#HINumber
Kealakekua Bay is a National Historic Park. It is the site of a heiau (temple), a stepped platform of lava rocks now partly reconstructed. Actually, the whole landscape down at sea level is rough lava rock – much like Nisga’a country. This is also where Captain James Cook was killed. There are some beautiful birds and succulent plants. Enthusiastic people wanted to rent me kayaks and a parking spot. The water is obviously fun; people bobbed around in it while large enough waves came in to splash right over the breakwater.
Macadamia nut cultivating is not as lucrative as it was. One nut farm store – the only active part of the business – was tended to unenthusiastically by a son of the owner. The owner started it in the 1970s, and is letting it go. After macadamias were introduced here from Australia, Kona provided about 80% of world supply. It’s a good deal less than that now. After ripening and falling off the tree, macadamias go through a relatively simple process of hulling, drying, shelling, seasoning and roasting. Problems include competition w/ bugs, rats and wild pigs, and prices aren’t that great.
Macadamias seem to be going the way sandalwood, whale oil, sugar, and pineapple have already gone – out. Coffee seems to be solid. When I saw signs advertising “We buy cherries,” it took me a while to realize that’s coffee cherries! There are many small cultivators. I’ve heard tourism referred to as “the next plantation.”
In Kealakekua, I walked up two roads (mauka, away from the ocean) and down another (makai, toward it). Signs at two of the three announced they were private roads and prohibited trespassers. I walked them anyway, figuring John Q. Public paid for the road signs. I’m a bit freaked out by all this private property, no trespassing stuff. It indicates a couple of things to me: these people are pretty scared, and there’s enough social inequality they probably need to be very afraid. (Teri points out that it’s mostly haole who post their property.) Lonely planet talks about thefts from cars being so common people just leave their cars unlocked to prevent damage to windows and doors. I never felt threatened.
The Pu‘uhonua o Hōnaunau National Historic Park is a wow. It covers a large area – say, 4 square blocks? About half of that was aliʽi residence (chiefly, noble or royal), and the other half a puʽuhonua, a place of refuge for those escaping persecution for violating kapu (taboo). The huge stone wall separating the two was built in 1550, and has been reconstructed. The white sand is cleared, and coconut palms are majestic. (I learned to watch for tall coconut palms as a sign of long-term noble residence.) There are fish ponds where fish were reared (farmed?), and these are surrounded by greenery. One temple has been rebuilt – it’s a thatch roofed A-frame, but isn’t on a mound. There are two huge platforms, one older than the other, said to have held heiau, in the refuge area – but no temple in the aliʽi area. It is said that Mauna Loa covered the area in lava 1000 years ago; that seems rather recent, and well within the time of human habitation. (This comes from the National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior and National Historical Park Hawaii pamphlet.) See www.nps.gov/puho for more info.
Heading away from the site (southeast) is a spit of lovely white sand, and in front of that, black lava rock down to the water. This is great snorkelling country, and there are picnic tables, washrooms and sitting area. Cars can drive down to there.
Paralleling the beach, in the same direction, is a trail constructed over lava, often by filling in with sand. It’s called the “1871 Trail” because, although it was created to link fishing villages to the aliʽi site before the 1700s, it was modernized to be used by horses in the late 1800s – e.g. w/ a ramp leading from the lower terrace to the upper. The last of the villages was abandoned in about 1930. I learned that archeological sites are distinguishable by the lava chopped into small blocks or cobbles; in its undisturbed form, it flows or is scattered at random. Several of the sites are “Wa kapu” – sacred to the Kānaka Maoli, and not to be entered.
The trail passes through three ahupua‘ha – i.e. territories. These were designed to include portions of each ecological zone from the shore (and maybe further underwater?) to the mountaintop.
Walmart, Safeway and Starbucks are the same everywhere, even down to the prices.
On the inland road between Kona-Kailua and Waimea (on Hawaiʻi Island), the changes in landscape are dramatic: from lush forest coffee-growing hill country to lava flow flats to cattle grasslands, with corresponding differences in climate and settlement patterns. In the hill area, houses are tucked in everywhere, in a pattern I suspect might be indigenous. Follow a driveway to one home, and it continues on to link a whole series of dwellings, extending to accommodate more people.
The Kohala Mountain Road links Waimea (paniolo or cowboy country) with Hawi by climbing the side of a huge hill. It is very windy and drivers can lose control of their cars; weather changes from clear sailing to 0 visibility in no time flat. Years ago, the federal government planted trees along the road to act as a windbreak. No wonder pasture switches from brown to brilliant green in no time; dry to rain. There are horse ranches, cattle ranches, and even some Corriedale sheep (I think).
Paniolo (Kānaka Maoli cowboys, a word perhaps coming from “Español”) were trained by Mexican charros.
Cowboy. (2012, September 19). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 09:12, September 21, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Cowboy&oldid=513555709
Pabuiki Preservation Society http://www.paniolopreservation.org/
At the village of Kapa`au I met Auntie Mary who, with her husband and a friend, were greeting visitors to the civic center. The old courthouse is now a seniors` centre, to which they belong. She`s lived in the village since she married; her husband is from there. They lived a while in Virginia Beach, on the mainland. She didn`t mind that; what she does mind is Honolulu. Her three children all work in education, one teaching hula, and all live in Hawai‘ì.
There are plenty of art and souvenir stores in Hawi. Hawi Gallery Art and Ukuleles is owned by a couple who moved there from Seattle. I talked with her. They both really wanted a change of life. He loves music, so they sell ukuleles and he gives lessons. She loves collecting and selling vintage stuff – clothing, home decore, etc. So that’s what they do. I asked if it’s terribly expensive to live there, and she thinks it balances out. With a Costco membership, sharing surplus plant or animal food, needing little clothing or utilities, it works out. To live in Hawi, she’s given up on owning stuff, but still has the pleasure of having lovely stuff rest in her hands until she sells it to others. (Substitute “treasures” for “stuff” at will.)
The lava fields themselves are varied. Much is flow, as I said earlier, but some consists of huge chunks of rock flung out by the volcano. Some areas consist of nothing but rock; others have tufts of grass, and still others are more-or-less covered in grass. Along the shore are a number of archeological sites, recognizable by the non-random distribution or piling of rock. I was amazed at the size of the settlement at Lapakahi State Historical Park. The remains consist of rock walls defining many structures, and covering a huge area. I understand from the pamphlet that it was a rich fishing area, but it still seems awfully rough ground to walk on. Portions of the ‘ohana (families) living inland cultivated kalo, etc., each group sharing with the others. An impressive site where I`d love to have spent more time! http://www.hawaiistateparks.org/parks/hawaii/index.cfm?park_id=50 and http://www.hawaiistateparks.org/parks/brochure_pdfs/hsp_lapakahi_state_historical_park26.pdf
At the Lyman Museum and Mission House in Hilo, the young woman running the gift shop talked a lot about Hawaiʻian family practices. We’re not sure whether Kānaka Maoli were traditionally matrilocal; she thinks not, more mobile and ambilocal, depending on who is headman of the ahupua‘a at the time. It’s pretty clear that women had a lot of influence. Certainly her husband’s grandmother is boss and Pops the servant! This young woman is of Filipina – Mexicano ancestry, her husband of Kānaka Maoli and lots of others. She had a daughter and then a son – the first-born son of a first-born son. Her husband’s grandparents claimed the boy in the hānai system, where grandparents have first right to children, even before parents. She just had to accept it (he was 3 months old!), even though it was very hard. It’s still the way it’s done.
Ahupuaa. (2013, July 31). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 01:06, October 3, 2013, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ahupuaa&oldid=566624457
Tsunami play an important part in the history and design of Hilo. The 1837 tsunami stimulated a Christian religious expansion. The 1946 one (coming from the Aleutians) demolished downtown and the Japanese neighborhood of Shinmachi, as well as a school in Laupāhoehoe, a town about 15 miles north. Downtown was levelled again in 1960, waves coming from the earthquake in Chile. (http://www.tsunami.org/ and http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/article/2006/Apr/01/ln/FP604010322.html) This helps explain why the waterfront at Hilo is empty, the buildings run-down and somewhat derelict. It’s too risky to invest much. The more prosperous part of town is well out of tsunami reach!
Hawaiʻi Volcanoes National Park is a super place. Nice walks past steam vents and views overlooking the crater of Kīlauea. Great birds and plants. Good volcanic displays in the Jaggar Museum. At the Volcano were several school tour groups, all Kānaka Maoli kids and teachers. http://www.nps.gov/havo/index.htm
At the Akatsuka Orchid Gardens were nothing but tourists, most from cruises. I didn’t know orchids could have a perfume!
Shirley Alapa moved to Molokaʻi from the mainland – California, I think – 34 years ago, married to a Kānaka Maoli. She now lives in Hoʻolehua, and I stayed with her. She had all sorts of information on places to go and things to see!
Perhaps because it is smaller than the other islands, Molokaʻi seems to have more coherence. Kaunakakai has all the necessities one could need to buy. The farmers’ market is on Saturday morning, selling clothing as well as food – locally grown and/or prepared. There are small grocery stores in town and scattered in island communities to provide the rest. At least two really nice gift stores deal in art and crafts by local artists, and Kalele Bookstore & Divine Expressions has Auntie Teri to tell you what you need to know. (MALAMA YOUR MAMA! Take care of your mother (earth)!) For instance, she told me of the spaghetti dinner being put on by the community for the women’s outrigger canoe race paddlers at $10 a head, and she suggested I attend. It was quite the cool affair. The food was fantastic: two spaghetti sauces, salad, vegetables, and different breads. Desserts included a chocolate mousse made with French chocolate and macadamia “whipped cream.” To see the beginning of this year’s race (an annual event, from Molokaʻi to Oʻahu): http://vimeo.com/50091662
What’s amazing is the friendliness of the people. When I couldn’t find the spaghetti feast, I stopped in a dry goods and gift store. It was tended by a woman who appeared Filipina, and spoke broken Hawai‘ian English. I don’t know how to describe it better, but it was fascinating. She didn’t know where the supper was either, so sent me to the grocery store. There, a young man explained that it was in a building through two stop signs and next to the police station. Again, the variation of English was fascinating. Both were full of good will, not rushing the interaction at all.
After I filled my plate, I asked two women if I could join them, and was enthusiastically welcomed. One was a councillor for the county; Gladys Baisa is from Mau‘i and she’s running for her fourth term. She worked in social services until she retired, and then ran for office. With her was another Gladys, a retired schoolteacher who knew Shirley.
A very special place on Molokaʻi is Coffees of Hawaii, in Kualapuʻu. My very first day, I stopped there for coffee, and went to use the restroom. (When I said “washroom”, I was directed to a sink.) Four women of about my age were at the table in the courtyard; Nicky and Prisca wore very fancy red hats and makeup, and Denise a red baseball cap. I thought, “They sure know how to wear a hat!” and told them so. They agreed to a photo. The oldest of the four invited me to join them. Wow, was I delighted! They meet one Saturday afternoon a month just to talk and laugh and laugh and talk.
The hatless one, Lori, married Lawrence, her high school sweetheart, about ten years ago, after both had married, raised kids and been widowed. Lawrence phoned Hawaiian Airlines when Nicky worked there, mentioning Lori. She told him Lori was back in Moloka‘i, and five weeks later, the two were married in Las Vegas.
All are of Filipina ancestry. One of the important bonds between these women is their religion. They are Catholic, but their husbands, not necessarily. Two of them are Pentecostals. (Hence, the women were shocked at my account of the Islamophobia I witnessed in Hilo. “That’s not the Hawaiian way!”) Denise has six children. Her husband died a year ago. She’s a school crossing guard, and loves blessing the kids every morning. She was born and raised in California, but one of her parents was Kānaka Maoli – Mom, I think. She’s one of those people of multiple origins. Unfortunately, that’s what she responded on a gov’t questionnaire, therefore didn’t satisfy the blood quantum requirement for Homestead Land. Next time she’ll know better, and just say, “Filipino and Hawaiian.”
Prisca is the elder sister of Lori, and there were 12 siblings. She had 6 children, w/ 5 still living. Nicky, their niece, is gorgeous, artistic, sexy, funny, graceful, a dancer. She worked for the airlines, and now manages the only affordable living complex on the island – where Prisca and Denise both live. She has one son.
After an hour or so of conversation, songbooks came out, and we had a sing-along for about an hour! From church choir, they have beautiful singing voices. Not needing to be part of the official Red Hat Society, they are “Papale Ula”, or “hat red”. I was so lucky to meet them, and ran into Lori several times during my stay. Her father was a fisherman, a very wise person. His children still constantly repeat “what Dad used to say.” They had big family sing-alongs, too. She`s nostalgic about that – and tree houses. There were so many children; they built a tree house to escape to! Her husband doesn`t dance, which she regrets. She worked in childcare when she was on the mainland. Back on Molokaʻi, she volunteers in family services as part of the church’s work. After the ukulele jam a couple of days later, she gave me the most beautiful tiny pineapple – which her brother had given her for her birthday.
Jam sessions are held at Coffees of Hawaiʻi every Sunday afternoon and Tuesday morning. On Tuesday, there were about 6 people at 10 a.m., and at least a dozen by about 11 a.m. I estimate nine of these were Kānaka Maoli, and the rest haole. Men and women range in age from their 30s to their 70s, both genders, 8 ukuleles, 1 base and 2 guitars. It varies. Plenty in the audience play along on their own ukuleles; everybody sings. Several of the musicians are professionals, and they’ve put out a DVD. They play Hawaiian songs (which are about the land), old love songs, and old rock and roll songs. “When I’m 64” was popular, as was “On the bayou.” I love the Hawaiian. (Hapa Haole – or half-white – songs in English are about love.)
I drove to Maunaloa, a little town on the western end of Molokaʻi. The road there is through dry, bare land with very red soil. The town is home to the famous Big Wind Kite Factory, with its refreshingly irreverent owner, an older guy with a big beard. (He and a customer agreed that it’s OK for believers to spout off, but atheists are silenced. No fair!) Three parts of town can be distinguished. One is abandoned commercial buildings and lodgings that belonged to Molokai Ranch (later Molokai Properties Ltd.) Then there was the ordinary housing and people, somewhat run-down but comfortable. The third is rather large new housing.
I made my way Kepuhi Bay, where there are several resorts, condo complexes, private homes (and mansions), a long beach, and beach access. The guide map says “Once a major resort area, Kaluakoi features a beautiful golf course, condominiums, and a defunct hotel.” Like the abandoned buildings in Maunaloa, it had been part of Molokai Ranch. The whole thing looks predictably depressing and deserted. There are a few people around. In condo parking lots are shrouded cars. The road down from Maunaloa to Kaluakoi was all part of Molokai Ranch. Running around close to the beach are “wild” turkeys and pheasants, and signs warn of (Axis) deer crossing the highway.
I didn’t talk to many people. A young Kānaka Maoli guy was at the beach with his family; he comes often, he lives here. “Do you smoke marijuana in Canada, too?”
The road to the eastern end of Molokaʻi towards the Halawa Valley is entirely different, windy, twisty, sometimes very narrow, through heavy forest. (I admit to chickening out just before I reached the Valley. As with downhill skiing, I decided that if everyone I encountered felt as incompetent as I, this would not work out.)
I visited a number of beaches where Kānaka Maoli had built fish ponds. It’s as if everywhere there was an inlet (think U), a lava stone wall was constructed, making a bar over the U, so fish could be trapped inside. It`s possible the walls of the U (the inlet) were also constructed. Very cool. There were breakers on the shelf further offshore; perhaps that made going out in canoes particularly difficult here. Landings would be difficult.
Roy Horner is the owner of Coffees of Hawai‘i and one of the ukulele musicians. He also owns the mule rides down to Kalaupapa, is in the insurance business, and engages in funeral or interment planning. He’s into everything! Has about 6 kids, some off and some on the Island. He recognized me from Tuesday morning’s jam session. He was a policeman on O‘ahu for about 20 years before returning here.
I came to a house with about 100 sets of deer antlers hanging from the rafters of the carport. I asked the hunter about them – yes, they hunt lots; he got his first deer when he was about 17; they’re really good eating; most people just shoot them whenever they run into them, because they’ve really over-reproduced, especially down on Molokai Ranch.
An old fellow sat on a bench outside the garage.
He asked me, “How do you keep your windshield so clean?”
“Being on Moloka‘I, I guess! Rain, no dust. . . “
“The thing is, every time I clean my windshield, I lose all my landmarks! I have to send up a flare to find myself!”
On the bus to Waimea from Waikīkī, the woman sharing my seat befriended me (and vice versa). By sheer coincidence, we were on the same bus coming back, so we spent a lot of time together. She has a Hawaiʻian name I didn’t write down, is a tiny little thing, slim and good-looking in shorts, and has to be about 62. Her eldest grandchild is 31, and she was 31 when she became a grandmother. She was married to a good haole man, and she and her mother-in-law were “like peanut butter and jelly”, they got along so well. They had 5 girls and one boy. Husband has passed on; diabetes complications. One of the girls developed type 1 when she was 13. I don’t think she worked outside the home; her pride is in having run a tight ship. She lives in a studio apartment just on the edge of Waikīkī, and her morning routine includes going around the corner for her senior`s coffee at McDonald`s. (Here, one is usually a senior at 60, so I qualified for $7.50 instead of $15 at Waimea yesterday!) She dances hula, and speaks an easy version of HCE to me. I don`t know about her schooling or real economic status. She was on her way to (and from) a scripture reading group. We talked a lot about food! For such a skinny person, she sure enjoys it! (She taught me where the warm spot is in a bus.)
At Waimea Valley were three people who acted as cultural and craft consultants. One was a young woman scraping paper mulberry bark to make kapa. She used a shell. She said that it would originally have been done w/ a larger shell than she was using! It reminded me of scraping a moose hide, but on a much smaller scale. The leaf was 8-10” wide. She explained that the leaves would be scraped until thin enough to begin pounding. They are placed with the grain in the same direction, overlapping. The pounding makes the fibers stick together. Hawai‘ian kapa is especially soft, compared to that of other Pacific Islands, because the Hawai‘ians discovered a fermentation process which makes the leaves softer. If holes do appear, the fabric can be re-pounded to fill in the hole.
She says Hawai‘ian culture is thought to have become especially patriarchal and sexist after the invasion of Pa‘ae, who brought Pili, a chief from Tahiti. They brought strict kapu, separating the sexes in activities, eating, space etc.
The other woman was weaving palm fronds (lauhala) as a demonstration. She also had a bagful of sayelle yarn in many colors. With this, she demonstrates how to make leis, by using the fingers of her hand as a knitting nancy, with two strands of yarn at a time. Her son was cutting the individual fronds off ferns, which his mother was weaving.
People of color (Asians and Kānaka Maoli) outnumber anyone else: lots of Japanese, Korean, Chinese. Whites under number anyone else. I’ve heard a fair amount of Spanish, too.
In Haoles in Hawaii, Judy Rohrer uses “locals” to refer to East Asians and Portuguese reared in Hawaii, haole to refer to people of European origin (mostly American and English), and Kānaka Maoli for people of Hawaiian indigenous ancestry. She translates kama’aina as native-born. Pidgin to da max says that’s for haole residents, so I’ll use Kānaka Maoli for indigenous ancestry. Rohrer also speaks of “the continent” rather than “the mainland” for the U.S.A.
Although Kānaka Maoli are certainly a minority in terms of social well-being (employment, income, health and mortality statistics), it is pretty clear that they are the owners of the expressive culture, identity and history recognized as Hawai‘ian – even the language, whether actual Hawai‘ian or Hawai‘ian Creole English (pidgin). It’s as if property may belong to others, but Hawai‘ians belong to the land.
Many people move or return to Hawai‘i because they love it: the physical setting, the climate, the lack of economic activity (in many places), the time for conversation, art, music and dance, the opportunity to learn ukulele and hula (which I’m sure has many of the same physical benefits as Tai Chi). Beautiful examples can be seen in the many performers at the Merrie Monarch Festival on youtube! Even on the beach at Waikīkī, hula performers were Kānaka Maoli, haole and Japanese.
The contribution and presence of immigrants to Hawai‘i are constantly recognized. The Bishop Museum had a unique exhibit on the clothing devised and worn by Japanese women working on the sugar plantations.
Most of the display at the Hawaii Heritage Center in Chinatown consists of worn Chinese items, but Jewish, Scottish, Japanese and Portuguese immigrants appear as well. There was a mention in the labels of “Sugar masters”, Chinese men of whom seven, at least, became prominent and wealthy. I thought they might be labor recruiters, but learned later that the Chinese knew how to extract sugar when the plantation owners did not. They controlled the process! See http://books.google.ca/books?id=HasX67ugiC0C&pg=PA26&lpg=PA26&dq=Chinese+sugar+masters+hawaii&source=bl&ots=nLlq6u6MFS&sig=08XlhwXMd9heuiVD5NEHqUuK4qQ&hl=en&sa=X&ei=LJVuUKXWEMf0igKn04CYAg&ved=0CCMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=Chinese%20sugar%20masters%20hawaii&f=false from book by Chang.) The Center was tended by a volunteer woman of Chinese ancestry. Sugar, pineapple and rice were the traditional crops, she said, but none are being cultivated any longer. It’s all being imported now, because other places of production and refining are much cheaper.
The west side of Hawai‘i Island has a strong Portuguese influence. The graveyard at St. John`s Church has many Portuguese surnames (including Madeiros, the surname of a candidate), and the owner of the restaurant serving malasadas and Portuguese bean-and-sausage soup could well be of Portuguese ancestry, as well! On the other hand, the owner of the hostel is South Korean. At St. Benedict’s Church, there were four generations of Kānaka Maoli women making and selling religious mementos and doing some gardening. There were a number of tourists in family cars: Japanese and Euro-whatever.
In the coffee hills above Kailua-Kona, I stopped at a small Japanese grocery store – that is, it’s been owned by descendants of Japanese immigrants for decades. It was tended to by a woman who’s lived there since she married a fellow from there, sixty years ago. (Patrilocality is a strong pattern.)
Auntie Mary of Kapa‘au says everybody comes to Hawai‘i, and they all get along. She shared with me a bean-paste cookie given to her by her Japanese friend, and knew the right name for it! Around the civic center are a number of monuments to war casualties and veterans: lots of Japanese names, a fair number of Portuguese, a few Kānaka Maoli. These communities are said to have been socially segregated during the sugar plantation years, but the sugar plantation and mill are long gone.
It’s also worth glancing at the list of war veterans at the Homelani Cemetery in Hilo, as a sampling of the ethnic composition of the population
So many variations of English, and so little time to learn to distinguish them! At least twice, I could have sworn the speaker was of Portuguese origin, and he was Hawaiʻian. And I know that different regions, communities, classes and genders spoke differently, and that all could easily exclude me by slipping into their version of Hawaiʻian Creole English (pidgin). I loved seeing one woman switch from HCE to standard English in the time it took to turn her head to face me. A Tongan, married to a local woman, sells hula regalia – drums, rattles, etc. He likes Hawaii because, no matter the accent, others understand – unlike the continent.
A fellow at the Starbucks in Kona-Kailua had great road navigation advice. His social advice was questionable.
- Try never to have to turn left. If you need anything, try to get it on your side of the road. Avoid being T-boned. Everyone here is stoned.
- Go nowhere in Hilo if the address starts with RR. There are lepers there! Just like here, in certain parts of town.
- Before the missionaries came, there was lots of jumping the fence. That’s why there’s so much disease, so much deformity.
- I’ve been here 10 years, but I’ll never be accepted as being from here.
The Lyman family of missionaries was just one of several that came to the Islands from the continental U.S. In Hilo is the Lyman Museum and Mission House (http://www.lymanmuseum.org/). Of the six Lyman children who lived to adulthood, three went to the mainland and became professionals, and the youngest daughter married a son of the Wilcox missionary family. (She later saved the old family home from demolition.) Two sons stayed in Hawaiʻi as businessmen, one marrying a Chinese-Kānaka Maoli woman and having 17 children! Sarah Joiner Lyman, the mother missionary, did make some concessions to living in Hawaii. At first, she insisted on lathe and plaster for all the walls, but was constantly having to fill the cracks after frequent earth tremors. She finally smartened up, covered the lathing w/ muslin, and wallpapered over that. Plenty of flexibility to withstand earthquakes!
Next to a public park in Hilo was a pickup truck with large signs in the back. One had pictures of bacon, a pig, etc.: “ISLAM REPELLENT. ISLAM DOESN’T BELONG IN A CHRISTIAN NATION!” And in white, on a lilac background, “JESUS CHRIST IS GOD.” Grotesque. I photographed the scene, but not the guy advocating it, because I guess I was leery of him. A Kānaka Maoli woman leaned across from the driver’s seat of her car to ask what I thought. I was disgusted. She figured I had an opinion, but would admit to none herself. “I don’t get involved in these things.” Two blocks away I came upon the regular Friday afternoon anti-war demonstration, which made up for it.
An elderly Kānaka Maoli woman (almost 79!) in the audience at the ukulele jam, chatted with everyone around her. I heard her joke that she lives on an Indian reservation – i.e. on Hawaii Homestead land: six acres near the high school. To be eligible for Home Lands, a person has to be at least 50% Kānaka Maoli. Their children can inherit if they’re 25%, but not less. It’s for use (residential and/or farm), but not for sale. Everyone comes to kiss her. She uses a walker, and as she got up to leave, three men unobtrusively left their conversation groups to accompany her down the steps. Once again, that care for elders. Elsewhere, an older woman was getting into her pickup truck; another truck honked twice and the driver called out the window; “Hello Auntie!” In Hawaiʻian, Tu-tu is grandma; Tu-tu kana is grandpa
I’d noticed many, many trees, all of the same type and about 12’ high. In dry areas, they have no leaves. I asked a fellow at the car rental in Molokaʻi what they are: haole koa. They were brought in to feed goats and cattle (hence “haole,” or whiteman). The leaves are fine, but when livestock eat the seed pods, they lose their hair! The seeds in the pods are about the size of apple seeds. They’re strung together to make leis, he says, but they’re so hard they’re boiled to soften them. Acacia koa is the Hawaiʻian version; both are legumes.
Molokaʻi’s Kalaupapa Lookout is a spectacular cliff path that overlooks the peninsula where lepers (those with Hansen’s syndrome) were quarantined. It’s one of those tragic stories: people from all over the islands thought to have leprosy were lifted out of their families and dumped there. Leprosy is not terribly contagious; many people carry the bacteria, but aren’t susceptible to it. About 8000 people went through there, some with the disease, some their family or helpers. Those who had it were thought to be unclean, corrupt, with no other identity, doomed, etc. I photographed a sign with the stereotypes. It interested me because of that guy in Kailua-Kona who characterized Hilo people as “lepers.” It’s a nasty accusation – especially when, in the next breath, he’s implying incest.
I hadn’t realized the degree to which the stigma of Hawaiians is leprosy. Some Mormon converts were taken to Iosepa, Utah. One of the reasons they didn`t adapt was the fear among Euro-Americans that they were lepers. See http://www.sfgate.com/news/article/Hawaiian-Mormons-history-unearthed-in-Utah-3255367.php
The owner (manager?) of the gas station in Kaunakakai was a friendly guy – didn’t fuss about getting my credit card before I filled. (Lacking a zip code, it’s a bit tricky. Have to authorize up to a limit first, then underspend.) He lived in California for a few years, married there, and is very happy to be back living in Moloka‘i. He’s happy to be surrounded by family (siblings, cousins, aunties), “Everybody looks like me,” they’ve got the same story, the same values and religion. “I don’t have to explain anything; everybody understands and gets it.”
I had to laugh at myself often, trying to figure out Hawaiʻian food. My notes state that “I went to the Kualapu‘u Cookhouse for supper of pork conkatsu – strips of breaded pork with a sauce – like ketchup! I figured it was likely Filipino in origin, a verson of “con ketsup” – with ketchup. And French fries, and macaroni salad, and some cabbage underneath. Run by Kānaka Maoli guys, it’s a good place.” It turns out pork tonkatsu is a Japanese dish, of thinly sliced breaded pork, having nothing to do with ketchup! I love sweet-and-salty plums, but never saw poi.
Honolulu’s Chinatown has some large markets with many booths and vendors. Visiting for the second time, my peripheral vision was more functional. I saw a big “comedor” I walked right by the first time – a food court, but with nothing resembling A&W! – and had a great wonton soup for lunch. There were Chinese and Filipino food restaurants. Great place to go! Long tables, plastic table cloths, melamine dishes, plastic cutlery, not much advice.
Along Nuʻuanu Stream, men play games.
There is still a bitter-sweet, love-hate relationship between Japan and Hawaiʻi, as seen in the Foster Botanical Gardens.
Have read The dark decade: anti-Catholic persecutions in Hawai‘i. Because the first missionaries were Calvinist Congregationalists, there was opposition to Roman Catholicism, which resulted in the aliʽi converts persecuting Hawai‘ian Catholic converts. This may help why Portuguese weren‘t seen as haole, as they were Catholic. On the other hand, they were also middle-men, not-quite-white, the lunas, the managers. It also makes Father Damien (now Saint Damien) a particularly significant figure, a Catholic hero.
There is plenty of Hawai‘ian nationalism, inspired by – but not entirely limited to – Kānaka Maoli. Many immigrants and newcomers adopt as much as they can learn of Hawaiʻian expressive culture and philosophy and are fiercely protective of their surroundings and the environment. The Hawaiʻian sovereignty movement might or might not include them. There is plenty of contemporary protest against military and corporate influences. The haole version tends to focus on environmental and sometimes cultural impacts, while the Kānaka Maoli is also concerned with increasing economic inequality and expropriation of wealth, as well as the instability of capitalist development.
For example, Kaho‘olawe is a small island that was bombed to bits by the US military. In the 1970s, two protesters disappeared at sea when going to occupy the island. It was surrendered to Hawaiʻi, which declared it a natural and cultural preserve, but there is still a good deal of unexploded ordinance. Wikipedia has a decent article on protests.
There is some public opposition reaction to a twenty-mile commuter train line being built in Honolulu. http://www.imuarail.com/rail-facts. Courts have called a halt to it because human remains have been found. Similarly, Kawaiaha‘o Church’s construction of a multipurpose center has been stopped, because it has unearthed six hundred unnamed burials in the cemetery adjacent to the church building – where the new construction is to go. Courts have ordered them to stop until an archeological survey is complete. (This reminds me a lot of the San Gabriel mission in Pasadena, where priests’ tombs are marked and there is a single placque commemorating hundreds of graves of anonymous Native Americans.) http://www.kitv.com/news/hawaii/Construction-for-18-million-multipurpose-center-comes-to-a-halt/-/8905354/16788086/-/6vg0ya/-/index.html ] The Mission Houses Museum is associated with Kawaiaha‘o Church, to interpret the “mission period” of Hawaiian history, 1820-1863 (http://www.missionhouses.org/). Most interesting are quotations from the writings of David Malo and Samuel Kamakau, both of whom were educated by the Missions and worked in their educational system – but not without misgivings and critique.
Important local issues in Molokaʻi include the plan by Pattern Energy and Bio-Logical Capital, with the support (and perhaps at the request) of the state government, to set up huge wind farms and an underwater electrical cable to feed electrical power to O‘ahu. The vast majority of local citizens are very opposed, as it is expected to destroy landscape, endanger animals, cost a lot of money, repel tourists, bring in outsiders as temporary workers, overload social services, and destroy cultural and sacred sites. They’d rather have roof-top solar panels or tiny windmills, but the state won’t support that. The opposition has formed IAM: I Aloha Molokaʻi. http://ialohamolokai.com/ One member commented that what really bugs him is that all these people come here because they love the lifestyle, and then immediately want to change it.
In brief, Molokai Ranch (or more properly Molokai Properties Ltd.) is widely seen as a villain. Having been for decades a cattle ranch owned by the Cooke family (missionary descendants) it was purchased by the “Hong Kong-based Guoco group.” They were refused permission to develop a huge multi-million dollar complex on the SW corner of the Island at La‘au Point, and so closed down everything else: the ranch, the lodge in Maunaloa, and the Sheraton Hotel and its tent-alows on the beach at the west end, the movie theater, and the golf course. Well over a hundred jobs were lost. This is part of the reason people of Moloka`i don`t accept the schemes of outsiders too easily; they`ve been burned by the rise and collapse of sugar, then pineapple, then ranch, then tourism. It reminds me of the military base in Masset, and the empty privates’ quarters – empty but for asbestos.
I found a useful articles on this:
Bradie, Sally (2008). Showdown on Molokai: the island’s best-known property closes its doors after locals say no to major development. Condé Nast Traveller July 2008. Retrieved September 26, 2012 from http://www.cntraveler.com/islands/2008/07/Showdown-on-Molokai
Hamilton, Chris (2009). Molokai Ranch: a year after closure, times are hard but spirit is alive. The Maui news April 19, 2009. Retrieved October 10, 2012 from http://www.mauinews.com/page/content.detail/id/517428.html
Kubota, Gary (2008). Final day’s dim light: despite the job losses, workers at the closed ranch hold to hope. Star bulletin, April 6, 2008. Retrieved October 10, 2012 from http://archives.starbulletin.com/2008/04/06/news/story06.html
In 2012, the Ranch announced it has new management, wants to renew lodge and such, and lease out to businesses in Maunaloa.
Cluett, Catherine (2012). Molokai Ranch: new leadership, fresh perspectives. The Molokai dispatch, May 17, 2012. Retrieved October 10, 2012 from http://themolokaidispatch.com/molokai-ranch-new-leadership-fresh-perspectives/
Furthermore, Molokai Properties is a partner in the wind turbine deal. After the 2008 mothballing, they went looking for other ways to profit from their property. I’ll just copy and paste a brief blurb:
Molokai Properties Limited Joins Forces with Pattern Energy Group LP to Develop Wind Energy Project
Apr 4 11
Molokai Properties Limited has joined forces with Pattern Energy Group LP to develop a proposed wind energy project on the island after it was unable to come to terms with its previous partner, First Wind. The proposed wind farm would have 90 wind turbines and transmit wind-generated electricity to Oahu via an undersea cable. Molokai Properties broke off talks with First Wind in November after two rounds of negotiations in which the two sides were unable to reach agreement on a land price and the approach to community involvement. From Bloomberg Businessweek, at http://investing.businessweek.com/research/stocks/private/snapshot.asp?privcapId=8101446
Molokai Properties held a public meeting in March 2011 explaining that they’re being pressured by the State Government to facilitate this. The State’s Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism is planning undersea cables from Molokaì and Lanai to O‘ahu, but to carry wind-generated power. Environmental assessments are being carried out by the U.S. Department of Energy. http://themolokainews.com/2011/03/03/molokai-ranch-lays-out-options-while-seeking-community-input-on-wind-energy-project/
The U.S. Department of Energy held Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement hearings in Kaunakakai on September 19, 2012. These sound much like hearings in Skidegate. 40+ people turned up to oppose windmills and undersea cable, some to suggest alternative energy sources (e.g. biofuel from kukui nuts). It is suggested that if the project goes to Maunaloa, there may be criminal sabotage. One objection is to subjecting smaller islands (e.g. Lanai and Moloka‘i) to the desires of O‘ahu. (http://themolokainews.com/ , molokainewsblog accessed September 26, 2012)
I`ve just looked up “Mo‘omomi Moloka‘i”, having seen a sign that says Mo‘omomi Beach is to be gated illegally. It’s on the North Shore (Not sure where yet.), and there’s an eloquent letter opposing the gating (in response to vandalism) using Hawaiian cultural principles. The letter is by Yama Kaholaa, Sr., published in the Moloka‘i News on September 14, 2012. Communities are to self-govern under the ahupua‘a system. This is to give all members land, water, shoreline, and access to the ocean. The system requires the practice of aloha (respect), laulima (cooperation), malama (stewardship). This results in pono (balance). (He also refers to Kanawi Mamalhoe, a legal principle voiced by Kamehameha I, that rulers may not abuse power. Purdy’s Macadamia Farm, has a great selection of posters and bumper stickers on the walls. Macadamias were brought here from Queensland, Australia in 1882. Those at Purdy’s farm were planted in the 1920s. The Purdys acquired the land under the Hawaii Home Land Act in 1980.
The Hawai‘ian “yah?” or “yeah?” is a lot like the Canadian “eh?”, or “OK?”, or “Got it?”
For a long time, I did not understand the lei thing. I’m fine on flowers and greenery, but there are books on making ribbon leis, money leis, and crocheted leis – using eyelash wool! (http://www.amazon.com/Making-Eyelash-Crochet-Coryn-Tanaka/dp/1573061808) This felt a whole lot like retired ladies of leisure developing new crafts – not unlike my own White Lady Dreamcatchers (beautiful crocheted doilies I make and stretch across brass rings). Then I found Father/Saint Damien’s two churches and cemeteries, and learned why crocheted leis are a good idea: around tombstones and crosses, they last almost indefinitely, much longer than flower leis. Ron later explained some meanings of the lei for me. He says a lei is an embrace, expressing love, respect, caring, memory. Grandchildren are the most beautiful and biggest lei, they who hang around your neck.
The Waimea Valley on Oʻahu is nice – a botanical garden with plants from many areas, and a path leading up to a waterfall. There are some reconstructed archeological ruins. The valley is formed by hills of huge boulders that have tumbled down, so certainly available for construction! There were a number of birds I haven`t seen elsewhere, also. A google search for “Waimea Valley history” turned up this great site: http://waimeavalley.net/ahupuaa.aspx The valley was an important priest’s heiau in the 1770s; his grand-daughter was able to retain only a fraction of it in the Mahele, and in fighting for more, went into debt and lost even that. Castle and Cook eventually obtained it (I think there’s hardly a piece of Hawaii that hasn’t passed through its hands!). It suffered serious floods at the turn of the 20th century, and Hawaiʻian inhabitants left, having lost houses, fields, etc. Christian Wolffer, an amusement park developer, operated it for a time. It is now owned by “a partnership including the city, the state Department of Land and Natural Resources, the Office of Hawaiian Affairs, the U.S. Army and the Audubon Society, with title to the property to be assumed by OHA for eventual transfer to a future Native Hawaiian governing entity.” This arrangement is considered culturally important; the Waimea Valley is said to be the last intact traditional ahupua‘a on O‘ahu: http://www.waimeavalley.org/ This site has a number of videos on the ownership and management arrangement.
Native Books, or Na Mea Hawai‘i, is a real treasure in Ward Warehouse in Honolulu. It is a store full of beautiful crafts and arts and lots of books. There is a fellow who works there and seems to be manager; he’s of Hawai‘ian, German and some other ancestry – Chinese and Filipino, likely. He told me of a conference at the Hawaiʻi Convention Center, of the Council for Native Hawai‘ian Advancement.
Visiting the exhibits at the Conference of the Council for Native Hawai‘ian Development was the culmination of my visit to Hawaiʻi. On that, my very last day, I was frequently close to tears. Listening to others Talk Story, I heard, saw, and felt beautiful things.
It was held at the Hawai‘i Convention Center. Glass walls soar at least 3 storeys high, with the actual floors floating well away from these walls. Thus the views of ocean and mountains are breathtaking.
In the central concourse were a number of vendors of t-shirts, colored pearls, beads and shiny jewelry, flowing garments. More impressive was feather work done by one woman, the feather kāhili (standards), sculptures, earrings.
Most incredible was jewelry (leis and earrings) made of miniscule seashells, matched for color and size. These are from the island of Ni‘ihau, a tiny place with only a few hundred residents. Shells there are particularly shiny because one side of the island has no fresh-water streams flowing into the ocean carrying silt – thus, they’re clean. I’d heard Teri say the most precious and tiniest of shells are only found “with your butt in the sand!” The woman at this booth explained it’s not just your butt in the sand, but lying down on your hands and knees with your eyes in the sand. Searching for these is exhausting. The most valuable items are those with more shells, and especially the darker ones. There are leis that take a whole lifetime of searching to put together. These are worth multiple thousands of dollars. See http://www.niihauheritage.org/index.html#
In a large hall were organizational booths, one for therapeutic music, another of the Department of Hawaiian Home Lands http://www.hawaiianhomelands.org . Only a portion of Hawaiian Government Land is set aside as Home Lands, and before it can be allocated, utilities infrastructure has to be developed. Applicants wait years to get their land, and pay $1/year for it. Some is designated for residential purposes, some for farms.
There was an exhibit of photos of Kalaupapa. One of the large posters listed the five hundred signatures gathered there opposing annexation to the U.S. I wanted to take a photo of this poster, but felt I should have permission.
Kalani, who at that time was caring for the adjacent booth of the Pacific Justice and Reconciliation Center, laughed and said I should take advantage of being alive and, certainly, take a photograph. We began a long conversation, and he invited me to sit with him. He’s a big man, in a wheelchair some of the time. He has a mobile, very expressive face, ranging from full laughter to tears to a fearsome grimace, reminiscent of that of Kuu and of the warriors of New Zealand. A kukui lei is around his neck. (The kukui is the candlenut, and the tree serves other medicinal purposes.) He also wears a couple of stone pendants. He is deeply angered by the U.S. appropriation of Hawai‘i; those who have invaded the lands of indigenous peoples everywhere need to just leave. All indigenous peoples share the same knowledge and attitudes. Only they can be trusted with the earth and its resources. It is infuriating to see economic development for profit and exploitation taking place everywhere, to see housing developments for the military and not for the people. Kalani advocates demilitarization, period. Quit selling “paradise” to people on the continent and denying it to people here.
Given his great anger, I asked how he keeps sane. He keeps talking, keeps thinking, keeps fighting; he stands in the way of those who threaten the powerless; he will not let them pass. He is an emotionally powerful warrior. I told him of the Haida chief who said, “I will not let you do this.”
He wept as he told me of riding a bus in the southern States. He was unsure of himself, didn’t know where to sit, and the driver insisted he sit up front, which worried and frightened him. The driver stopped the bus to show him locusts. Kalani wept at the memory of sadness and humiliation, and the bus driver’s kindness. He also spoke of being uncomfortable getting on The Bus now, with his big wheelchair – of inconveniencing people.
The Pacific Justice and Reconciliation Center works with the houseless and with penitentiary inmates, practices the Native Hawai‘ian Church as well as Christianity, teaches non-violent martial arts, and advocates Hawai‘ian sovereignty. I’ve now spent a fair amount of time on its website (http://www.pacificpeace.org/Welcome.html ) – very much liberation theology, about non-violent action against the sins of colonialism and greed. It was founded by the Hawaiian Council of Churches. Heroes are Gandhi, Dr. Martin Luther King and Queen Lili‘uokalani. Through it I learned of the U.S. apology to Hawai‘ians for their annexation (http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-103sjres19enr/pdf/BILLS-103sjres19enr.pdf 19981103), and the United Churches of Christ’s apology as well (http://www.pacificpeace.org/16._APOLOGY_UCC.html 19930117). The U.S. apology includes a detailed listing of events – of how U.S. citizens took control of the gov’t of Hawai‘i, declared it a Republic, took Crown, government and public land and ceded it to the U.S., all without the consent of the people, and how the U.S. later ratified this takeover, annexing the territory, along with those of Guam, Puerto Rico and the Philippines. The U.S.A. National Council of the Churches of Christ also passed a resolution to support Kānaka Maoli sovereignty in 1993 (http://www.pacificpeace.org/19._STOLEN_NATION_NCCCUSA.html) It’s all very dramatic and impressive. I’ll try to find the originals on a couple of these documents. U.S.: http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/BILLS-103sjres19enr/pdf/BILLS-103sjres19enr.pdf
Na Mea bookstore was set up in another large room, responsible for pulling together important Hawai‘ian artists. One made lauhala (weaving of coconut fronds); there were some great abstract sculptures, and some modern paintings. There was also a woman beating kapa, a pretty constant pock-pock-pock of one piece of wood on another, the beater on the anvil with the strip of bark in between. By the time I was close to her, she was adding the third layer of bark. The amalgam of the three into one strip was a yellowish color, and the texture looked mushy – definitely soft and poundable. Yes, it is fermented; yes, it does smell, she says. If a hole appears, the fabric can be moistened and pounded again. The last beating is done with a textured beater; that creates the watermark.
A wonderful guy makes really great jewelry; I didn’t pay him as much attention as I should have. He had carved bone fishhooks and other things. His name may have been Paul. A really friendly, warm, thoughtful person, he has a client who buys weapons from him who lives in Edmonton. He asked if I lived anywhere near there; “Sure,” I said, “Just three hundred miles away.” “And that’s near?” He’s got a great sense of humor. When he heard me mention “Nobama” (as in a bumper sticker), he piped up with, “Oh, did I hear you say ‘Obummer’?”
An artist appeared at the table next door, which I really wanted to photograph. He makes mahi‘ole, the headdress made of reeds worn by aliʽi. It is like a helmet, and the weaving almost makes it look knitted; held up over the helmet on supports is a crest. (Alternatively, the supports are protrusions with circular ends.) These are covered with a plant net (it grows like a net) which in turn has feathers sewn into it.
The artist is a man Paul called “Uncle Sol” – for Solomon. (I don’t know last name, and am not having much google luck.) He had one completed mahi‘ole under an acrylic cover; another couple without feathers, one of them the “pillar” type (as I call it), and one he was weaving, starting by pinning it on a wooden head form. Those with feathers, Sol makes of ‘ihe‘ihe; the one he was weaving as I watched was reed that comes from SE Asia. He also makes “the best tools” for beating kapa (says the kapa-maker).
Solomon invited me to come sit on his side of the table, so he could hear me. Before long, we were joined by his cousin Ron, in a red Hawai‘ian shirt. Both have some Chinese ancestry – as well as Hawai‘ian. It appears Solomon is really knowledgeable on the art and craft end of it, and is fairly quiet. He speaks in HCE, mostly, and it is beautiful to listen to. Ron is very knowledgeable on history, politics, and culture, very voluble and eloquent in Standard English. He told me a great deal, and continuously dropped the names of books and authors, which I’ve since followed up. He’s from Kailua, and now has an organic farm on the Big Island. “We grow some lavender.”
Paul, Sol and Ron each spoke of the others as “knowing a lot”.
Ron took the acrylic cover off the mahi‘ole, picked up the helmet, and held it out to me. I gasped, put my hands inside it, held it, blew on the feathers, and almost lost my composure. It was beautiful, precious, like the one worn by Kamehameha I in his statues.
The chiefs were very powerful, with huge responsibility for people, land and resources. They were intermediaries with the gods, so had great spiritual responsibility, too. They wore a particular kind of pendant, of whale ivory (?); the shape of a hook, it also had a tongue protruding, indicating the responsibility to speak. (Ron wears a pendant of a beautiful octopus.) While powerful, they could be overthrown. Given power and responsibility, they also had to be physically large, strong, active, with big appetites, consuming, able to take land. (He is very expressive and dramatic, acting it out.) He spoke of the four principle gods, and their many facets. Also the hula which was forbidden by missionaries, especially those that emphasized pro-creativity and sexual energy. He told of Lono and Ku, the love and peace vs. war gods, and their times of year, and the need for both sides.
I have yet to hear anyone complain of missionary schools in any of the ways we Canadians have had to deal with residential schools. (Perhaps the Hawaiʻian counterpart is Kalaupapa.) However, the Republic of Hawaii did prohibit the use of Hawai‘ian language in schools.
Ron spoke of growing up in Kailua, and fighting with his brother over the body-board they shared. An adult they met said he’d help them resolve the fight, and took them home to have his maid prepare them tuna sandwiches for lunch. Much later, a record store was selling off its 45s; one record had a picture of this guy on it. It was Elvis Presley!
Kalani and Ron are both offended by the desecration of graves at Kawaiaha‘o Church. They may be Christian graves, but that doesn’t mean their remains belong to the Church (and this is United Church of Christ). Kalani proposes digging up the cemetery in the Punchbowl. (That’s one cemetery I missed.)
Although land was set aside for commoners in the Great Mahele, most lost it. For one thing, they couldn’t conceive of land ownership, so when someone offered them $20 for their land, they thought, “Stupid haole!” and accepted the money. Others didn’t know how to pursue land title, or why it mattered.
Paul came over to give me a magazine. It is Ka‘Elele: The messenger, The journal of Bishop Museum. On the cover is the Dalai Lama, wearing a reed mahi‘ole – no feathers. Was it made by Solomon?
In museums, I’m most attracted to interpretations of the lives of commoners (maka‘āinana). The first floor of the Hawaiian Hall of the Bernice Pauai Bishop Museum is about the early residents and gods of Hawaii, starting about 900 AD, origin stories of land, of species, of humans, and of population migration. Adzes are a big focus: how they’re made, from what material, quarrying, trade of blanks. These websites are informative: http://www.mauna-a-wakea.info/maunakea/C_adzemaking.html Very good! The second storey has great material culture, tools, hula. There was discussion of kin group territories (ahupua‘a) that went from the volcano top to the shores – cool vertical integration.
Third storey is on royalty. This museum got me thinking that those deciding what to present to foreigners were obsessed with royalty. There is a hall displaying beautiful kāhili (the feather standards used by royalty), royal genealogies, and other paraphernalia. The museum itself was created by Charles Bishop, widower of Bernice Pauahi Bishop (princess), in the late 1800s. He was the first banker of Hawaii (from the mainland), and this is one impressive building.
Perhaps I’m obsessed with royalty, too, seeking to understand how the centralization of power becomes possible or necessary, as it’s not a “natural” state of affairs. I’m definitely biased by being a citizen of a country whose head of state is a foreign monarch.
I fear I’m rather irreverent concerning nobility and royalty. I rudely stomped out of the video room of ‘Iolani’s Castle, and couldn’t even bring myself to enter the castle itself. Showcased are ornate furniture, china, silverware, telephones, the luxury with which royalty all over the world lived prior to 1900. All this, and the Christianity and literacy of the Kānaka Maoli nobility were being displayed as they travelled the world to demonstrate they were as good as anyone else. Meanwhile, the population was dying in droves, Americans were taking possession of the land – as were the nobles themselves – and the American residents were making Hawaii a Republic by imposing their own constitution. The Kānaka Maoli nobility acquired wealth from somewhere, and it certainly wasn’t shared with the vast majority of the people. They got it by selling the sandalwood etc. produced by the people. Nobility did create hospitals and schools, however.
King Kamehameha I conquered O‘ahu and most of the other islands, unifying Hawai‘i with the help of cannons, firearms and European mercenaries. He may also have benefitted from huge population losses due to disease. Kamehameha II abolished the kapu system by eating with women. I saw no mention at the Museum of the changes to land tenure system (the Great Mahele of 1848), and am still uncertain how it affected royalty. How long did they keep the 1/3 allocated to chiefs, or the 1/3 for the crown? (This was later ceded to the U.S. by the Republic of Hawaii.) The last monarch was Queen Lili‘uokalani who was overthrown by an American settler conspiracy when she wanted to institute a constitution which would return power to the monarch. Although the U.S. government recognized the coup was illegal, they eventually annexed Hawai‘i anyway.
I wonder what led to the power of monarchs. It could be effects of the Great Dying, the distortions created by the loss of population. Royalty were also dying off like crazy, constantly replaced. Lots of space was left wide open. Wealth increased due to commerce in sandalwood, etc.; there must have been a huge amount of money floating around to build castles and furnish them, to buy firearms. Somewhere I read sandalwood production was also resulting in famine. Perhaps missionaries added to the idea that monarchs should be particularly special, and should be rulers. The woman scraping kapa at Waimea said a ruler came over from Tahiti, bringing new ideas of hierarchy, kapu, and sexual segregation. Marion Kelly speaks of an increase in population in 1200 or so, resulting in a need to build many more fish ponds, which requires coordination, design, command – hierarchy.
It seems to me the centralizing hierarchical monarchy became more possible and necessary as a result of the arrival of outsiders. However, I must recognize that, before the Great Dying, hierarchy was very possibly much more pronounced.
Although I’ve been bothered by the wealth of Hawaiʻian royalty in the 19th century, e.g. their palaces full of foreign luxuries, next to the poverty and sickness of makaʻainana (commoners). I do sort of understand that the royalty had to put on a show to demonstrate they were as sophisticated and civilized as the English and the Americans, but it still seems wrong. Today, Ron sees huge mansions being built by very rich people on the Island, while next door are people who live in extreme poverty. Property prices are pushed really high; hence the need for Hawai‘i Home Land.
There is a really important difference. The wealthy today have no obligation to their poor neighbors, but the monarchs (and aliʽi) did have a responsibility for and a relationship with the people. The monarchs had legitimacy, and collected tribute that was often given with love as a motivation, e.g. in feathers. Could there have been despotism? Certainly, as in persecution of Catholics.
It was the fellow at Na Mea bookstore who first explained something I had not been able to understand. I spoke of my reticence regarding royalty-worship; as a Canadian, it’s just not really appealing. He made me understand that, for Hawaiʻians, monarchs symbolize resistance and nationalism, not conformity and oppression. Auntie Teri first tried to correct my view of royalty. To Hawaiʻians, she says, the aliʽi are protectors, or did their best to be. I guess that, rather than enjoying huge wealth while commoners starved, royalty can also be seen as displaying Island pride, showing themselves as fully worthy of being alongside rulers of other countries, to be displaced only by criminals.
To Kānaka Maoli, in striking contrast to this Canuck, the monarchy is a symbol of sovereignty and resistance to foreign domination.
Quilt-making is a fascinating topic, to me. Hawaiians learned how to make them from missionary wives, but developed their own patterns. They tend to be in two colors, a background color and an appliqued figure. This is a geometrical shape – rather like a snowflake. An interesting description is at http://www.womenfolk.com/quilting_history/hawaiian.htm Queen Lili‘uokalani made a famous quilt imprisoned in her palace while the Americans were busy overthrowing her. It includes two Hawaiian flags, upside down, indicating her displeasure with the Americans. The flag in itself is a symbol of resistance. It’s a Union Jack, with a stripe for each island (8). This was something the Kānaka Maoli insisted on keeping.
Flag of Hawai‘i:
The canton of the flag of Hawaiʻi contains the Union Flag of the United Kingdom, prominent over the top quarter closest to the flag mast. The field of the flag is composed of eight horizontal stripes symbolizing the eight major islands (Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, Kauaʻi, Kahoʻolawe, Lānaʻi, Maui, Molokaʻi and Niʻihau). A ninth stripe was once included, representing the island of Nihoa. Other versions of the flag have only seven stripes, probably representing the islands with the exception of Kahoʻolawe or Niʻihau. The color of the stripes, from the top down, follows the sequence: white, red, blue, white, red, blue, white, red. The colors were standardized in 1843, although other combinations have been seen and are occasionally still used.
Flag of Hawaii. (2012, September 11). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 06:27, October 5, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Flag_of_Hawaii&oldid=511918421
Hilo’s Town Square is dedicated to King David Kalākawa, who is remembered for preserving Hawai‘ian culture and language. The Island of Hawai‘i and Hilo are also important to the memory of King Kamekameha I, who united Hawaiʻi.
Foster Botanical Garden was donated to the City of Honolulu by Mary Mikihala Robinson Foster. Her mother was the daughter of a Hawaiian chiefess, her father a shipwreck survivor, her husband a Nova Scotia shipping entrepreneur. She had no children, but was a religious dabbler. She funded the construction of a Buddhist temple in India. This article does a great job of linking religion and politics in early 20th-century Hawai‘i, with Foster partly demonstrating rebellion (religious and social) by leaving Christian ranks.
Karpiel, Frank J. Theosophy, culture and politics in Honolulu, 1890-1920. The Hawaiian journal of history. http://evols.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/bitstream/handle/10524/454/JL30175.pdf?seq..
Everywhere I go in this hemisphere, it is the mansions and gardens of the rich of the late 19th and earliest 20th century that provide space for today’s botanical gardens and museums. It’s interesting that here, the gardens, palaces and museums come from Hawai‘ian royalty. These probably result in a good deal of pride.
In downtown Honolulu is the big Kānaka Maoli church, the one the aliʽi (nobles) converted to – and brought their people to, the Congregationalist/Calvinist Kawaiaha‘o Church. It is all wood and stone, with some kāhili, feather standards used by aliʽi. http://www.kaahelehawaii.com/pages/art_gallery_kahili.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kawaiaha%CA%BBo_Church
While I was looking at the burials disturbed by excavation, a wedding was taking place at the church – or was being re-enacted for photographers. I think I was told it is common for Korean weddings to be held there, because weddings in Korea are so expensive, but it could have been a Japanese couple holding a destination wedding. The guests outside were in Hawaiian prints; the bride was in white. I got a photo of bride and groom leaving the church, but missed the moment when they were showered with flower petals!
The combination of the two – wedding and burials – quite choked me up.
Up the hill from Kealakekua Bay on the Big Island is St Benedict’s Painted Church. It was put in place up on the hillside in 1902, and painted on the inside by the first parish priest. It’s a pretty white church on the outside (no priest now) and a cemetery. Some documents were reproduced in a scrapbook; the priest says that in recent years, instead of some 17 Kānaka Maoli villages, the parish has 11 settlements including a number of Portuguese. (And now the Catholics would be Filipino, too.)
One road not labeled “Private Property” was St. John’s Road, which runs by St. John’s Church. The church is not particularly new; some burials date back to the 1920s. Everyone seems to be either Portuguese or Kānaka Maoli, as suggested by St. Benedict’s log. There were lots of flowers along the road! I talked to a woman (of definite Portuguese appearance) in the parking lot of St. John’s, asking permission to go to the cemetery, and told her of my concern regarding the roads and trespassing. She said not to worry; no one is as frightened as they seem, and they don’t really even recognize each other, much less strangers. I’d already noticed that people waved at me from their cars. She was on her way into church, and I soon heard guitar and song.
The Alae Cemetery is just north of Hilo on Highway 19. I walked through most of it, taking lots of pictures. It’s divided into areas A-J, but it’s hard to tell why. Earlier letters tend to be older graves. One area of the cemetery has a sign identifying it as Korean, but I’m not sure how many of the graves actually are. There is also a monument to Korean immigrants and the suffering they endured in sugar fields while working for freedom for Korea. Japanese occupation in 1910 is vividly remembered. I think about 2/3 of the graves are of Japanese, which surprised me; thousands. The remaining 1/3 seem to be Korean and Chinese (the similarity in scripts makes it hard for me to tell), with a few Portuguese and Filipino. Anglo-Hawaiian and Kānaka Maolis are few. I guess I’ll have to look for the other cemeteries in town to find out where they’re going. The Japanese tombs tend to be the most impressive and are closest to the pathways. [In later research I learned that there may be a section of that cemetery that is Mormon – or Mormons are photographing tombs. http://www.usgwarchives.net/hi/hawaii/alaeldscem.html]
The Hilo Chinese Cemetery is just up the hill from downtown Hilo. In 1875 the Chinese were given a plot of land on which to bury their dead, which they wanted to do following proper Taoist procedure. The graves are arranged so the tombstones all look out to sea. There’s a pavilion with interesting porcelain figures; I believe I recognized year designations, e.g. dog, horse, rooster, dragon. I don’t know if that’s all of them. I loved the green gable tiles – it’s a color of green I’m fond of, like the furniture in the House of Parliament.
Homelani Memorial Park is another couple of blocks up the hill in Hilo. This is primarily, or at least initially, the cemetery for the Protestant Anglos of the town, starting with the missionaries. There are some Japanese, Chinese, and Filipino, but not a lot. There is also a large section for veterans and their family members. The newer the section, the flatter the headstones. There are strict rules about plants, containers, accessories (no windmills, mirrors, photos) quite unlike Alae, the livelier cemetery north of town. The Chinese cemetery was fairly plain as well, though headstones varied considerably and there were some fresh flowers. It’s interesting how often there are fresh flowers on burials that are 50 years old.
The Homelani Cemetery in Molokaʻi is entirely different. Kānaka Maoli are buried there, the family plots surrounded by low walls of lava rock. It’s mostly of beautiful red soil, a fair amount of rock, but little cement or lawn. It reminded me of the archeological sites, w/ their walls of lava. There were horse prints in the soil as well. I’m told it’s the oldest Home Land cemetery on the Island.
Moloka‘i Veterans’ Cemetery is next door to the Hoolehua Cemetery. It’s a Home Land cemetery – only for those with Home Land. That explains why it was all Kānaka Maoli. Graves are decorated (or not) in every which way. I especially notice flowers and many kinds of leis.
I had a conversation with (and took a photo of) a fellow who was creating a flower garden on a grave of the Alfonso family. He put in the soil, alyssum, petunias.He and his wife were florists on the continent before moving here. They’ve been coming here since the 1960s. They now live in Maunaloa, and have seen huge changes there. There used to be Cook Island Pines all the way from the top of the hill to the ocean. Now it’s bare grassland. Those trees act like magnets for rain, but there isn’t any, now.
An unusual grave has a canopy over it. He says it is the burial of a kahuna who taught hula and held a big celebration every year, celebrating the birthplace of hula, near Maunaloa. The gardener and his wife were invited once; it goes all night, under a full moon, with no electrical light; it is very special, gives you chicken skin. For the first couple of years after the kahuna died, the canopy was covered with leis.
Kapaʻakea Cemetery is just east of Kaunakakai. I’d seen it once, but never again. My problem is signs often parallel the road, and I don’t turn my head. I guess I need a co-pilot. This is an ethnically mixed burial ground. There still aren’t many haoles – probably because not that many haoles have died and been buried here. Plenty of Filipinos, Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Okinawans. Another kahuna grave. Also some Kānaka Maoli. Dudoit is a common name – likely descendants of Jules Dudoit, businessman and French consul in the early 19th century.
Father Damien (Saint Damien) created two churches on the topside of Molokaʻi (i.e. not on the peninsula of Kalaupapa).
As well as a reconstructed sugar mill, the Moloka‘i Museum and Cultural Center is associated with the RW Meyer Cemetery – Meyer having been the proprietor of the sugar mill. It is a lovely place under huge trees, with beautiful tombs and green grass lovingly maintained. It’s for the Meyer family and descendants. There is much religious sentiment, art, statuary, poetry, family photos, etc. There is esteem for those who have lived long, and grief for those who have died young – or even are stillborn.
There is an amazing number of cats here. As in Cuba, it seems like a good idea! I saw a couple of mongooses today – they look like ferrets with a thicker long tail. They’re like the squirrel of Hawaiʽi. They were brought in to control the rats that had escaped, but it turned out rats were nocturnal and mongooses diurnal, so now both are pests.
I know that I’m blind to many things. For example, I’m uncomfortable with the lack of access to the beach, seeming to make it very private. I’m sure that’s partly true- but I also begin to spot signs that are positioned parallel to the road, rather than perpendicular, so I only see them if I turn my head directly left or right when driving by.
My photos from Hawaii are mostly of cemeteries and flowers.
The clouds as they move across the night sky remind me of northern lights. They sweep across with the moon highlighting them, swirl, skud along.
In Hawaii, it is legal to carry people in the back of pickup trucks, and to ride a motorcycle without a helmet.
Hawaiian friends (groups including women, at least) greet each other with a hug and a big smack on the cheek.
At night, the streets of Waikīkī are like a constant midway, at least for a few blocks. People thronging, some buskers and panhandlers. It is a happy and colorful crowd. Most tourists seem to purchase a Hawai‘i shirt or dress while they’re here. Locals don’t wear them much. Men in Hawai‘ian shirts are either tourists or deal with them. Women only wear mu‘u-mu‘us for traditional purposes – or to deal with tourists. A bit like guayaberas in Cuba.
ahupua’a – territory from mountaintop to shore
aliʽi – nobles
aloha āina – love of the land
hānai – adoption
heiau – temple
iwi – bones, remains
kahuna – priest
kamaaina – haole resident of Hawaii
keiki – child
kʽiʽi pohaku – petroglyphs
konohiki – steward of ahupua’a
kuleana – responsibility
kupuna – grandparent, elder
kukio – cooperate
loʽi – fish ponds
makaʽainana – commoners, fishermen and farmers
makai – seaward
mauka – inland
‘ohana – family; they’re spread out along the ahupuaʽha
paniolo – cowboy
piko – umbilical cord
umeke – bowl
Aikau, Hokulani K. (2012) A chosen people, a promised land: Mormons & race in Hawaii. University of Minnesota. U of A has hard copy.
Chang, Toy Len (1988). Sailing for the sun: the Chinese in Hawaii 1789-1989. University of Hawaii. U of A has hardcopy.
Handy, Edward, Handy, Elizabeth, and Pukui, Mary (1972) Native planters in old Hawaii. Bishop Museum Press. U of A has hardcopy
Hawaiian journal of history. On-line at http://evols.library.manoa.hawaii.edu/handle/10524/9
Imai, Shiho (2010) Creating the Nisei market: race and citizenship in Hawai‘i’s Japanese American consumer culture. U of Hawaiʽi press. U of A has hardcopy.
Kamakau, Samuel. Ruling chiefs of Hawaii. Freely available at http://www.ulukau.org/elib/cgi-bin/library?c=chiefs&l=en (He died1876.)
Malo, David (1838) Hawaiian Antiquities (Moolelo Hawaii) is a free e-book on google.
McGregor Davianna Pōmaika‘i (2007). Nākua‘aīna: living Hawaiian culture. U of Hawaii.
In my ebscohost folder.
Merry, Sally Engle (1999). Colonizing Hawaii: the cultural power of law. MacEwan University has hardcopy.
Osorio, J.K.K. (2003). Dismembering lahui: a history of the Hawaiian nation to 1887. University of Hawai‘i. U of A has hardcopy
Panek, Mark. Big happiness. Can’t find it.
Rohrer, Judy (2010). Haoles in Hawaii. University of Hawaii Press.
Simonson, Douglas, Sasaki, Pat & Sakata, Ken (2005). Pidgin to da max: 25th anniversary edition. Honolulu: Bess Press.
Whittaker, Elvi W. (1986). The mainland haole: the white experience in Hawaii. Columbia University. U of A has hardcopy.
Wyban, Carol Araki (1992). Tide & current: fishponds of Hawaii. U of Hawaii.
Big drum: Taiko in the United States (clip)
Holo Mai Pele (clip) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GkZ13bcHKgA
Malama Haloa with Jerry Konaini on Vimeo. Great 83-minute documentary on kalo. http://vimeo.com/22688761
Merrie Monarch videos on youtube.com
Ahupua‘a maps of Hawai‘i – actually posters for sale.
Bishop Museum, videos, etc. http://www.bishopmuseum.org/
Center for Oral History – Oral history recorder http://www.oralhistory.hawaii.edu/
Only one issue of the Recorder is online
Chinatown, Honolulu. (2012, June 23). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 08:26, September 27, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Chinatown,_Honolulu&oldid=498974133
There was an outbreak of bubonic plague in Chinatown in 1900. Some buildings were deliberately, but fire spread. 40 people died of plague.
Gourds: Elroy Juan – gourds http://www.hamakuaartists.com/elroy.htm
Fulbeck, Kip (2006). Part Asian, 100% Hapa. Chronicle Books.
Hawai‘ian sledding: heeholua, lava sledding. It looks a lot like surfing on water!
Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole. (2012, August 12). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 07:54, October 5, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jonah_K%C5%ABhi%C5%8D_Kalaniana%CA%BBole&oldid=506992569 He was instrumental to the Hawaiian Homes Commission Act.
Kahoolawe. (2012, October 4). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 22:04, October 6, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Kahoolawe&oldid=515974492
Kaiwakiloumoku – Hawaiian Cutural Center, virtual archive w/ Kamekameha Schools.
http://apps.ksbe.edu/kaiwakiloumoku/ Keep track of this one!
Keepers of the flame documentary; review http://apps.ksbe.edu/kaiwakiloumoku/makalii/reviews/movie/keepersoftheflame
Kelly, Marion (1989) Dynamics of production intensification in pre-contact Hawai‘i. Accessed October 3, 2012 at http://metalx.dreamhosters.com/107/R19-dynamics_of_production.pdf
Koreans in Hawai‘i: http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/specials/korean100/
Mary Kawena Pukui Mary Kawena Pukui. (2012, September 5). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 01:44, September 17, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mary_Kawena_Pukui&oldid=510952683
Na Maka o ka Aina (2012) Mauna Kea from mountain to sea. Retrieved October 6, 2012 from http://www.mauna-a-wakea.info/maunakea/index.html
Robert William Wilcox. (2012, May 4). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 08:19, September 27, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Robert_William_Wilcox&oldid=490603849 He’s part of the aliʽi resistance under U.S. annexation. Anti-monarchist, anti-imperialist (U.S.) anti-corporations! Quite the character! A number of the members of the nobility did the same thing. See Jonah Kūhiō Kalanianaʻole above.
Silva, Noenoe K. (1998). The 1897 petitions protesting annexation. University of Hawaii at Manoa Special Collections. Retrieved October 4, 2012 from http://libweb.hawaii.edu/digicoll/annexation/pet-intro.html
Wilcox, Carol (1996). Sugar water: Hawai‘i’s plantation ditches. U of Hawaii Press. On my ebrary bookshelf.
And then there were none (the book)
People and cultures of Hawaii
The Hawaiian Quilt
Creating the Nisei market
The Polynesian family system
Sarah Joiner Lyman
From a Native daughter
The separating sickness
2007 Merrie Monarch Fest DVD
Hawaiian voices DVD
Little Hawaiian poke
Lili‘uokalani: Hawaiʽis story
All about Hawaiian
Talking Hawaii’s story
Pidgin to da max
Kalei: the leis of Hawaii
Haoles in Hawaii
Tengan, T. Pi Kawika (2008) Native men remade: gender and nation in contemporary Hawai‘i. Duke University Press. U of A has hardcopy.